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Analysis Italian Language

Le Lingue Artificiali de Il Trono di Spade: Analisi linguistica dell’Alto Valyriano e del Dothraki

Alida Castronovo was born on the 4th of April in 1992, in the city of Palermo, in Sicily. She attended the University of Palermo and obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Languages and Modern Literature and Linguistic Mediation. She continued her studies at the same university and obtained a Master’s Degree in Western and Eastern Languages and Modern Literature.

Besides her passion for music and TV-series, her interests are to be found in linguistics’ field and in foreign languages. Her passion for languages has always accompanied her throughout her academic history, in which she studied several languages, such as English, German, Chinese and French.

Alida Castronovo è nata il 4 aprile 1992 a Palermo, in Sicilia. Ha frequentato l’Università degli Studi di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Triennale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne e Mediazione Linguistica. Ha continuato i suoi studi universitari presso l’Università di Palermo, conseguendo una Laurea Magistrale in Lingue e Letterature Moderne dell’Occidente e dell’Oriente.

Oltre ad essere una grande appassionata di musica e serie tv, i suoi interessi spaziano anche nel campo della linguistica e delle lingue straniere. La sua passione per le lingue l’ha accompagnata durante tutto il suo percorso accademico all’interno del quale ha studiato diverse lingue, quali l’inglese, il tedesco, il cinese e il francese.

Abstract

Nowadays, constructed languages are catching linguistic research’s attention more and more. But, such a complex field does not enjoy the prestige it deserves yet. The purpose of this thesis is that of demolishing, through knowledge, scepticism’s barriers that have always accompanied this form of art, by highlighting the way the TV-show Game of Thrones’ constructed languages (Dothraki and High Valyrian) are destroying the prejudice, little by little.

In Chapter I, basic concept concerning conlangs will be presented by investigating their origins, their propulsive thrusts and by providing noteworthy examples, such as Volapük or Esperanto.

Chapter II provides the analysis of the most famous examples of constructed languages created for literature and cinematography, such as Tolkien’s elvish language (Quenya), Paul Frommer’s Na’vi and Mark Okrand’s Klingon.

Chapter III offers an in-depth analysis on Game of Thrones’ constructed languages, Dothraki and High Valyrian, created by David J. Peterson. In this chapter, every linguistic aspect of these languages will be analysed, with detailed tables and explanatory examples.

Finally, in Chapter IV, we provide an analysis of Game of Thrones’ languages, whose aim is that of evaluating their linguistic adequacy from a typological point of view. In doing so, we refer to Greenberg’s typological classification of languages. Therefore, Dothraki and High Valyrian will be analysed and filtered through Greenberg’s Implicational Universals of Languages. (Italian Text)

Le lingue artificiali stanno acquisendo sempre più valore, attirando sempre più le attenzioni della ricerca linguistica. Un settore così complesso e articolato non gode ancora però del prestigio con cui lo si dovrebbe guardare. Obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di abbattere, attraverso la conoscenza, le barriere dello scetticismo che da sempre accompagna questa vera e propria arte, mettendo in luce il processo di annientamento del pregiudizio che scompare anche grazie al successo delle lingue artificiali create per la serie tvGame of Thrones.

Nel Capitolo I verranno affrontati i concetti di base riguardanti il mondo delle lingue artificiali, indagandone origini, motivazioni e presentando alcuni tra gli esempi più noti, come il volapük o l’esperanto.

Nel Capitolo II verranno presentati i grandi esempi di lingue artificiali create per la letteratura o per la cinematografia, come la lingua elfica di Tolkien, il na’vi di Paul Frommer e il klingon di Mark Okrand.

Il Capitolo III scenderà più a fondo nell’analisi delle lingue artificiali create da David J. Peterson per la serie tv Game of Thrones, l’alto valyriano e il dothraki. In questo capitolo verranno analizzati tutti gli aspetti linguistici noti, correlati di tabelle esplicative ed esempi chiarificatori.

Infine, nel Capitolo IV viene proposta un’analisi delle lingue di Game of Thrones volta a valutarne l’adeguatezza linguistica da un punto di vista tipologico, facendo riferimento alla classificazione tipologica delle lingue che vede come suo principale teorico Joseph Greenberg. Le lingue in questione verranno, dunque, analizzate attraverso il filtro delle implicazioni postulate negli universali linguistici greenberghiani.

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English Language Essays

Designing an Artificial Language: Syntax

Rick Morneau is a long time language creator who lives in rural Idaho. In the early 1990s, he wrote a series of essays on language design that proved to be quite influential in the early language creation community. Their quality has endured since their original publication, and continue to be read and enjoyed by language creators the world over.

Abstract

This essay discusses syntax, and how certain aspects of syntax can differ among natural languages. It also teaches how to use a modified version of Backus-Naur form to define the syntax of a language, and provides a complete syntax for an AL that is extremely flexible while also being extremely simple and easy-to-learn.

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Conlang Descriptions Essays French Language

Les langues construites Délimitation, historique et typologie suivies d’une illustration du processus de création d’une langue naturaliste nommée «tüchte»

Alexis Huchelmann is an Alsatian conlanger. After completing a master’s degree in linguistics, he is undertaking publishing studies and hopes to join both paths into something which could benefit the conlanging community. Other interests include playwriting and Russian literature.

Alexis Huchelmann est un idéolinguiste alsacien. Après un master de Sciences du Langage, il a commencé des études en Métiers de l’édition et espère joindre les deux domaines de façon à pouvoir aider la communauté des idéolinguistes. D’autres de ses loisirs sont l’écriture de pièces de théâtre et la littérature russe.

Abstract

This master’s thesis provides a tentative definition, history, and classification of constructed languages (or conlangs), as well as a description of the methodology used for the elaboration of an a priori language called Tüchte. (French Text)

Ce mémoire présente une définition, une histoire et une classification des langues construites, ou idéolangues ; et la description de la méthode employée pour construire une langue a priori nommée tüchte, dans le but de découvrir ce que cette occupation peut apporter à la linguistique.

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English Language Essays

Names Aren’t Neutral: David J. Peterson on Creating a Fantasy Language

David J. Peterson received a BA in English and Linguistics from UC Berkeley in 2003 and an MA in Linguistics from UC San Diego in 2005. He created the Dothraki and Valyrian languages for HBO’s Game of Thrones, the Castithan, Irathient and Indojisnen languages for Syfy’s Defiance, the Sondiv language for the CW’s Star-Crossed, the Lishepus language for Syfy’s Dominion, the Trigedasleng language for the CW’s The 100, and the Shiväisith language for Marvel’s Thor: The Dark World. He’s been creating languages since 2000.

Abstract

This essay, written originally for the defunct publication Unbound Worlds, is aimed at fantasy authors who aim to invest their fantasy worlds with linguistic verisimilitude. Peterson discusses best practices and pitfalls to avoid in this essay intended as an introduction to the art of language invention.

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English Language Essays

Designing an Artificial Language: Universals: Recommended Reading

Rick Morneau is a long time language creator who lives in rural Idaho. In the early 1990s, he wrote a series of essays on language design that proved to be quite influential in the early language creation community. Their quality has endured since their original publication, and continue to be read and enjoyed by language creators the world over.

Abstract

This article provides a brief description of linguistic universals, and then recommends some books that discuss universals in much more detail.

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English Language Essays

Designing an Artificial Language: Arabic Morphology

Rick Morneau is a long time language creator who lives in rural Idaho. In the early 1990s, he wrote a series of essays on language design that proved to be quite influential in the early language creation community. Their quality has endured since their original publication, and continue to be read and enjoyed by language creators the world over.

Abstract

This essay discusses how to design a language with a morphology similar to Arabic and other semitic languages.

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English Language Essays

Designing an Artificial Language: Morphology

Rick Morneau is a long time language creator who lives in rural Idaho. In the early 1990s, he wrote a series of essays on language design that proved to be quite influential in the early language creation community. Their quality has endured since their original publication, and continue to be read and enjoyed by language creators the world over.

Abstract

This essay discusses how to design the surface morphology of a language (i.e. the “shapes” of words) such that the words are easy to pronounce as well as computer-tractable.

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English Language Essays

Designing an Artificial Language: Phonology

Rick Morneau is a long time language creator who lives in rural Idaho. In the early 1990s, he wrote a series of essays on language design that proved to be quite influential in the early language creation community. Their quality has endured since their original publication, and continue to be read and enjoyed by language creators the world over.

Abstract

This essay discusses how to select the phonemes of a language based on what the language is intended to accomplish, and on how much pronunciation difficulty is acceptable.

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Analysis English Language

Alternations: An Introduction (and Some Further Explorations) for Conlangers

Doug Ball began conlanging in 1994, primarily working on a language he calls Skerre. His conlanging interest led him to discover the field of linguistics and ultimately to a career as an academic linguist. Holding degrees from the University of Rochester (BA) and Stanford University (PhD), he is currently a member of the Department of English and Linguistics faculty at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri. There, he teaches classes on general linguistics, theoretical phonology, theoretical morphology, and theoretical syntax as well as Native American and Polynesian languages.

Abstract

This essay explores the nature of alternations: variations in form across different contexts. In addition to providing a basic introduction of the phenomena in both English and in other languages, it considers several frameworks for understanding the behavior of alternations in natural languages. This essay also offers some recommendations for the creation of alternations in constructed languages and gives some examples to illustrate these recommendations. It is a revised and expanded version of a talk given at the 7th Language Creation Conference (July, 2017) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

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English Language Presentations/Demonstrations

Slides for Linguistics 183: The Linguistics of Game of Thrones and the Art of Language Invention

David J. Peterson received a BA in English and Linguistics from UC Berkeley in 2003 and an MA in Linguistics from UC San Diego in 2005. He created the Dothraki and Valyrian languages for HBO’s Game of Thrones, the Castithan, Irathient and Indojisnen languages for Syfy’s Defiance, the Sondiv language for the CW’s Star-Crossed, the Lishepus language for Syfy’s Dominion, the Trigedasleng language for the CW’s The 100, and the Shiväisith language for Marvel’s Thor: The Dark World, among others. He’s been creating languages since 2000.

Abstract

This article is a collection of all the Keynote slides and the syllabus of Linguistics 183: The Linguistics of Game of Thrones and the Art of Language Invention—a six week course taught at UC Berkeley during the A session of the 2018 summer session. Each build of each slide is included, though audio and video is not embedded. While there were audio and video components on certain slides, their use should be more or less clear given the context.

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